Unexpected Benefits of Memorials

“What do these stones mean? On the Importance of Memorials”

I delivered this sermon on 11 June 2017 in honor and recognition of our graduates. The wording will be slightly different for ease of reading, but for the most parts the points are consistent. I read an article in the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society by Daniel I. Block entitled, “What Do These Stones Mean” The Riddle of Deuteronomy 27 (JETS, Vol. 56, No. 1, March 2013). About the same time my pastor asked me to preach and prepare for the graduation service, and God reminded me of the importance of memorials, and from this and the passage in Joshua chapters 3-4, the sermon was born.

Begin by reading Joshua 3:7-17,

The LORD said to Joshua, “Today I will begin to exalt you in the sight of all Israel, that they may know that, as I was with Moses, so I will be with you. 8 And as for you, command the priests who bear the ark of the covenant, ‘When you come to the brink of the waters of the Jordan, you shall stand still in the Jordan.'” 9 And Joshua said to the people of Israel, “Come here and listen to the words of the LORD your God.” 10 And Joshua said, “Here is how you shall know that the living God is among you and that he will without fail drive out from before you the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Hivites, the Perizzites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, and the Jebusites. 11 Behold, the ark of the covenant of the Lord of all the earth is passing over before you into the Jordan. 12 Now therefore take twelve men from the tribes of Israel, from each tribe a man. 13 And when the soles of the feet of the priests bearing the ark of the LORD, the Lord of all the earth, shall rest in the waters of the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan shall be cut off from flowing, and the waters coming down from above shall stand in one heap.” 14 So when the people set out from their tents to pass over the Jordan with the priests bearing the ark of the covenant before the people, 15 and as soon as those bearing the ark had come as far as the Jordan, and the feet of the priests bearing the ark were dipped in the brink of the water (now the Jordan overflows all its banks throughout the time of harvest), 16 the waters coming down from above stood and rose up in a heap very far away, at Adam, the city that is beside Zarethan, and those flowing down toward the Sea of the Arabah, the Salt Sea, were completely cut off. And the people passed over opposite Jericho. 17 Now the priests bearing the ark of the covenant of the LORD stood firmly on dry ground in the midst of the Jordan, and all Israel was passing over on dry ground until all the nation finished passing over the Jordan.


This passage sets the stage for one of the more remarkable events in the history of Israel. Similarly, graduation is a significant accomplishment. It is one of the greatest achievements one can make in one’s life. In Scripture, we see similar accomplishments in the lives of God’s people. We see the deliverance of Israel from Egyptian slavery and we see the crossing of the Jordan River. In both of these amazing events, the Israelites are instructed to construct or observe some type of memorial. In the Exodus the establishment of the Passover meal began, see Exodus 12:14. In Joshua 4, shortly after the crossing over the Jordan river the Israelites were to have twelve leaders (one from each tribe) and build a monument to be a reminder that God had been with them and will continue to be. Perhaps the greatest memorial we observe is Communion, the bread and the cup, where we celebrate the death of Jesus and our deliverance from sin and death, see 1 Corinthians 11. The purpose of these memorials was to remind God’s people of the victory He provides, Exodus 13:8-9.

To begin with, we must note that:

1. An amazing accomplishment has just taken place

The children of Israel spent 40 years in the wilderness, wandering around in a bleak desert.

desert pic

Can you imagine walking around this for forty years?

After the death of Moses, Israel, under the leadership of Joshua, begins to embark on their journey to the Promised Land. The first obstacle they approach is the Jordan River. The timing of this crossing could not have been worse, from a human perspective. Our writer informs us that “the Jordan…overflows all its banks during the entire season of the harvest” (Joshua 3.15). To Israel, it seemed they had reached an impasse.

I imagine that looking back on your schooling you probably thought that graduating was an impasse, a river overflowing its banks, impossible to pass. By the grace of God, even when it seemed you would be washed away, you made it! This goal is seriously one that has taken almost your entire life to complete, and you have finished it. The same thing could be said about our struggles at work, striving for promotions, the accolade we desire.

I want us to think for a moment, what accomplishments have we been a part of? What has God brought you through? What seemingly unconquerable moment has Jesus granted you victory over? You have two spaces to write where God has given you victory. “In you” is where God has provided deliverance from a sin, or helped you progress on your way to deeper intimacy with Him. “Through you” is where God is working in other’s lives through you.

This is a time of celebration! A time of rejoicing! Be excited at the journey, but relish in the victory. Graduation has been reached, this chapter has ended, the goal has been reached, the river has been crossed.

Can you imagine the excitement of Israel as they crossed? Finally, after hearing about this land they are finally entering it. Think about Abraham in Genesis 12:1 where God promised him this land, around 500 years! But before they left the river bed they did something quirky. They had twelve men, one from each tribe; grab a stone on their way out.

2. A special monument is established to help remind us of it

The consistent focus is on God’s Word (Torah). Moses was instructed by God to build a memorial of large stones in Deuteronomy 27.2-3. Joshua fulfilled this in Joshua 8:30 on Mt Ebal. God then instructed Joshua to give himself entirely to the reading and meditating of the Torah (see Joshua 1.8), which would have included this command to build a monument. Now, honestly, after going through that amazing miracle, stopping and building a monument seems a little anti-climactic.

I think, however, if we stop to glean from this it can help you graduates, but also us as a faith family. God is constantly at work in our lives. I love how the author of Hebrews puts it, “May the God of peace, who brought up from the dead the great shepherd of the sheep by the blood of the eternal covenant, Jesus our Lord, furnish you with all that is good, that you may do His will. May he carry out in you what is pleasing to him through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen.” God works in us to bring about good in our world. There are many times that we get caught up in life, in high school, in projects, in kids, in careers, and we, to our own detriment, fail to see God’s work in our lives. Or, on the chance that we do recognize God’s hand, we do not make a note of it (literally or metaphorically) and we easily forget it. One of the reasons God required this monument was to provide future generations of evidences of God’s works (Joshua 4.6-7).

We set aside today to honor our graduates. They have spent years working toward this goal. They have been tested, they have completed exams and projects, and as a result they are bestowed the honors and recognition of completing the high school degree. They ‘graduate’ which comes from the Latin word gradus, meaning step. This step is complete. The river has been crossed, the monument raised. The course is complete, the diploma given.

The monument, though certainly a recognition of a great accomplishment, is not only that. It is also a look forward to what is next.

3. A past reminder with a future look

The stones were not only meant to remind them of a past action. Certainly they reminded the children of those who crossed the Jordan River of this momentous event. But that is not all it was.

Interestingly, these stones were still standing at the time that writer recorded the events that took place in Joshua chapter four. We don’t know how long, but it was still standing to that day.

Now, you may be wondering, how does this reminder give us a look to the future? This is where an event such as the crossing of the Jordan River, or graduation, brings on another level of significance. The goal has been achieved, success is enjoyed, but it is not the end itself. It is a point on an incredible journey in which our lives grow and experience life. The children of Israel would look back at this monument and remember what God had done in their lives. Then, after remembering what he did, they could look forward and press on into the future.

Romans 8:31 “What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?”

I love how the Apostle Paul puts it in Philippians 3.13-16, “Brothers, I for my part do not consider myself to have taken possession. Just one thing: forgetting what lies behind but straining forward to what lies ahead, I continue my pursuit toward the goal, the prize of God’s upward calling, in Christ Jesus. Let us, then, who are perfectly mature adopt this attitude. And if you have a different attitude, this too God will reveal to you. Only, with regard to what we have attained, continue on the same course.”

As graduates, this monumental moment is a testament to your own determination, hard work, and willingness to work toward completing a goal. You know that it took the combined effort of friends, family, and teachers to help complete this task. And so it was with Israel. They worked hard in the desert, and with God’s help they achieved the goal: entrance into the promised land. But they did not stop there. They looked out onto a new horizon, one filled with possibilities and excitement. The monument reminded them of what God had done in the past, and it is from a place of confidence that the children of Israel would march forth into this new frontier.

And so it is with you, graduates, your accomplishments are a monument to what you have accomplished, how far your drive and desire can take you. And it also reminds you that God was with you every step of the way. Looking to this monument, you can take courage and forge ahead into the new field to which God is calling you.

Congregation, your past accomplishments, your victories, are meant to help remind you of what God has done in your own life. They are meant to encourage you to push forward, to stand up to the tasks because you know God has delivered you in the past you will be delivered in the future.
Application and Closing Thoughts:

We honor our graduates today for the achievements they have made. We recognize that the diploma is a monument to their hard work and effort. We have seen in our own lives monuments to God’s work. We rejoice over the victories that God has provided. We, from the view point of history, saw how Israel built monuments.

With Israel, we look and rejoice over our accomplishments, astounded at how God moved and worked in and through us. With a bright hope, the graduates, our faith family, you and I, can look to the future with an expectancy and joy.


Hebrews 2.1-4

Here are the notes covering Hebrews 2.1-4. This passage is so convicting because we all are tempted to ‘drift away’. What, in your life, has caused you to drift away? What, like the swaying tides of the sea, has drawn your heart further away from Jesus? More importantly, what brings you back? What anchors your soul to the Savior?

I pray that this is a blessing to you!

Hebrews 2.1-4 A Dire Warning

1 Corinthians 10.6

Introduction: We are introduced to this section with a connecting word, ‘therefore.’ Whenever we see such a word we should immediately look back and see what was written previously, in order to place the following section in its proper context. The passage we looked at last time covered the deity of Jesus, that, compared to the angels, God’s Word confirms that Jesus is truly God in human flesh. As this lends itself to the topic, let us look once again at the main points presented by our author.

  • Jesus is better than the angels because He is God’s own Son
    • His Name is better
  • Jesus is better than the angels because He is Sovereign Lord
    • The angels were created to be ministers
    • Jesus is better because His deity calls for worship
    • Jesus is better because His rule is without end
    • Jesus is better because He is creator

It is on this foundational knowledge of the deity of Jesus Messiah that the writer issues what should be taken as a very serious and dangerous warning: do not turn back from Jesus. It is a serious matter, when presented with truth, to either ignore it or to walk away from it.

We read throughout Scripture of similar warnings. In 1 Samuel 5.22-23 we see a warning to Saul. In Jeremiah 6.19 we see another severe warning. In Deuteronomy chapter 28 we see a list of both blessings and curses; blessings for obedience and curses for disobedience. It is a serious thing to ignore or work against the truth. James speaks of self-deception when knowledge does not affect our lives (James 1.22-25).
Read Sir Robert Anderson’s quote, ‘Types in Hebrews’ page 38.


The doctrine to which we shall focus our attention is: Rejection of God’s truth will bring judgment.

The Reasons for this Doctrine

Why can we arrive as this teaching? Why can we, from the reading of these verses, render such a terrifying thought? Because…

  1. God’s message through the angels proved trustworthy in every point- vss. 1-2
  2. God’s message through the Lord, witnessed by God, and empowered by the Spirit is trustworthy in every point- vss. 3-4

The Details of this Rejection

  1. This rejection is not an immediate, outright rejection.*This is confirmed by the use of the words ‘neglect’ amelew and ‘drift away’ pararrew. Both words carry the connotation of gradualness. The first word indicates an apathetic relationship with the truth, a simple non-caring attitude. The second word indicates an inclination toward disbelief that occurs gradually. They are both nautical terms. So if you can imagine a ship or small boat being loosed from the dock, it will slowly move away.

    I find it very interesting that those who leave the faith rarely do so from a one-time event. Perhaps after a tragic event one may leave. I think of Bart Ehrman. He is gifted with an incredible intellect and is one of the most recognized scholars of our time. Bart Ehrman began his life as a believer. In his story he explains how the ‘problem of evil’ and ‘suffering’ led him to eventually become an agnostic. I use Dr. Ehrman as an example because he slowly, over the course of many years, left the faith. And this is exactly how we leave the faith, or stop believing what God has said. We don’t typically just flat our deny the Bible. We gradually do so. We may slowly stop believing that God will judge this sin in our lives, or believe that He will indeed be with us, or so on and so forth.

  2. This rejection ignored the tested and provable truth.*The message of the angels presented throughout the Scriptures has proven true. Likewise, the message first preached by Jesus, then His followers, witnessed by God the Father and accompanied with miracles through the power of Holy Spirit have also proven true.

    It is important to note, here, that faith is not without evidence. When we get to Hebrews 11 we will see an abundance of Old Testament saints that prove the validity of faith. But let me give you a personal illustration. I love my kids. They are my little lady and my buddy. But there are times when I, as the father, have to discipline them. Now I may warn them repeatedly, ‘Don’t do that or you will be punished’. And they hear it, stare directly at me, and then proceed to do that which I told them not to do. They face a punishment that is deserved. That is the idea here.

The Remedy for this Rejection

  1. We must make earnest effort- vs. 1The author gravely warns us that we must give the more earnest, “a degree which is considerably in excess of some point on an implied or explicit scale of extent.” This is also a nautical term. It is the word picture of tying the ship to the dock. Throughout Scripture we are told to make every effort, to expend all our energy for several different reasons.

    There is also the connection here to the Old Testament warnings given by Moses to Joshua (and by extension the people of Israel) in Deuteronomy 32.46-47. Moses details the importance of the word he gave the Israelites, and the extension through the author of Hebrews, that the word is our life.

    2 Peter 1.5, 10, and 3.14- Peter encourages believers to develop their faith. He says, ‘make every effort’, ‘be all the more diligent,’ and ‘be diligent’.

    Psalm 119.4- God commanded that His Word be kept diligently (think of the

    Proverbs 4.23

  2. Pay closer attention to the truth of God’s Word-vs. 1Psalm 119.9, 11
  3. We must become thorough acquainted with God’s truth- vs. 1

Critical Editions of the Hebrew Bible- Hebrew Assignment

Here is a short article I worked on for one of my Hebrew classes. Please read it and let me know what you think!

The Leningrad Codex

The Hebrew Bible (hereafter HB) has seen revisions and textual versions produced in the last century. To define and discuss the various efforts made by scholars, Hebrew linguists, and textual critics, a basic groundwork of terms, versions, and their respective goals must be examined. The student of the HB should be acquainted with this field as his selection of which HB to use will be affected by the information soon to be discussed.

Perhaps the most basic step in understanding the critical editions of the HB is to understand the text (or texts) used in each edition. According to Murphy the Codex Leningrandensis is “the central text for most modern Hebrew Bible editions.”[1] L (as is abbreviated in scholarly work) is extremely valuable as it is the most ancient copy of the complete HB.[2] This forms the basis for many of the HBs available today.[3]

The second major Codex used for the HB is the Aleppo Codex. While the L is considered the oldest complete codex, the Aleppo Codex, or A, is the oldest manuscript available to scholars today.[4] It is represented by many different manuscripts from a variety of geographical areas as well as dates.[5] It is the basis for the major work being completed by the Hebrew University Bible Project.

While the Codices L and A form the basis of two families of HBs, a new work is being accomplished known as the Oxford Hebrew Bible (OHB). This project uses an eclectic approach, as Hendel writes, “Rather the OHB aims to be a reliable and circumspect critical eclectic edition, and a worthy complement to the diplomatic editions.”[6] Rather than relying on one Codex, the eclectic approach seeks to gather all available manuscripts and codices in addition to different versions of the Old Testament.[7]

The various editions of the HB all come from different purposes which affect the use of the selected Codex (or eclectic approach). For the line that follows L several reasons exist for the purpose of choosing this one Codex. To begin with, the fact that it remains the oldest complete codex lends great weight in its selection.[8] Baker provides the next three reasons in his review. Contrary to the reasons provided by the OHB[9], there are no accepted methods for review and evaluation of Hebrew manuscripts, codices, or other sources (such as the Syrian Pentateuch or the Septuagint).[10] The next objection raised by those who prefer L is there is no objective starting point to begin when choosing an eclectic text.[11] Finally, programmatically the purpose of the BHK, BHS, and BHQ is to provide a one volume tool for a wide field.[12] To attempt to collect and include variants in readings from the sources that the OHB uses would necessitate a work of many volumes.[13] It should become apparent that the perceived short comings of an eclectic text as well as the incompleteness of the Aleppo Codex have led the editors of the BHK, BHS, and the BHQ to choose L as their choice.

The next codex had a similar approach though slightly different. While those who chose L for their editions of the HB selected it on the basis of a complete text, the editors of the HUB used the Aleppo Codex. However, in their edition they also provide their readers with several other variants and leave the reader to determine which reading is more accurate and honest.[14] The editors organize the witnesses in a unique way which allows the reader to work through the available evidence.[15] The difference between this approach and that used by the editors of the OHB is this: the editors of the HUB allow the readers to decide which reading is the most accurate while the editors of the OHB make judgments on the witnesses they provide. The approach of the HUB is more closely related to those who utilize L, but as was stated previously slightly different. One can see how the selection of materials and sources for the edition of the HB is directly related to both the purpose and the textual views of those editing.

The eclectic approach is the final of the three major branches of the editions of the HB. Hendel provides an extremely lengthy and detailed reasoning of behind the work of the OHB.[16] The editors offer several reasons why an eclectic approach is to be chosen above a single codex. The explosion of manuscript and other materials has provided the field of textual criticism with an enormous amount of evidence.[17] This material must be evaluated and examined to see its worth when attempting to find the archetype.[18] The editors then go on to develop a method and rationale for their efforts, providing logical examples of textual criticism from other fields (such as English Renaissance literature).[19] The work they have attempted to accomplish is massive and the editors readily agree that the work would not be available in a single volume but would ultimately be a one volume work for each book of the HB.[20] This work will be one that takes a great deal of time and effort, but the results will yield much in the field of textual scholarship.

The discussion of the critical editions of the HB is a large one, and one hardly able to be placed into a single work, much less a short article. The student and scholar is encouraged to perform his or her own investigation into the field.

[1] Todd J. Murphy, Pocket Dictionary for the Study of Biblical Hebrew (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2003), 101. The date provided by Murphy is CE 1008.

[2] Weis, Richard D. “Biblia Hebraica Quinta and the Making of Critical Editions of the Hebrew Bible1.” Weis, Biblica Hebraica Quinta and the Making of Critical Editions of the Hebrew Bible. January 1, 2002. Accessed September 14, 2014. For those who may not know, a codex is “An ancient manuscript bound in folio leaves (a book) rather than as a scroll.” Murpy, 42.

[3] The BHK, BHS, and BHQ are all dependent upon L. See Paul D. Wegner, A Student’s Guide to Textual Criticism of the Bible: Its History, Methods & Results (Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic/InterVarsity Press, 2006), 108.

[4] Murphy, 22. He lists the date as CE 930. See also Baker, David L. “Which Hebrew Bible? Review Of Biblia Hebraica Quinta, Hebrew University Bible, Oxford Hebrew Bible, And Other Modern Editions.” Tyndale Bulletin 61, no. 2 (2010): 211-36. January 1, 2010. http://www.galaxie.com/.

[5] Sanders, James A. “Book Review: Hebrew University Bible: The Book of Ezekiel.” Review of Biblical Literature 2, no. 1 (2005): 1-6.

[6] Hendel, Ronald. “The Oxford Hebrew Bible: Prologue to a New Critical Edition.” Vetus Testamentum, 2008, 328-329.

[7] Ibid., 326.

[8] Kittel, Rudolf. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Editio Quinta Emendata ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1997),xii, xiv.

[9] See Hendel, 328-334 for a lengthy discussion on the process and methods for their selection of an eclectic text.

[10] See Baker, 212.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Althann, Robert. Torah Neviʼim U-khetuvim = Biblia Hebraica. 5.th ed. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2004), vi. Althann writes in the introduction, “it was intended…for use by scholars, clergy, translators, and students who are not necessarily specialists in textual criticism.”

[13] The editors of the OHB make no claims to desire to provide a one volume work. In fact it is opposite of their claims. See Hendel.

[14] Sanders, 2.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Hendel, 324-351. He also includes examples of the use of the OHB.

[17] Ibid., 324.

[18] Ibid., 329.

[19] Ibid., 343.

[20] Ibid., 324.